Piston Pumps and Their Common Types

In order to move liquids or compress gases within an assembly or fluid application, pumps are one of the most commonly used equipment pieces across varying industries. Piston pumps in particular are a type of positive displacement pump, capable of utilizing a reciprocating piston and high-pressure seal to create large amounts of pressure. While an old device that has long been used in countless industries, the piston pump continues to be a standard component for a wide range of applications. In this blog, we will discuss the design and functionality of piston pumps, as well as common types seen in various setting.

While there are multiple types of piston pumps available, the general feature shared by all is the inclusion of a piston moving within an enclosed cylinder. Similar to many other types of positive displacement pumps, the piston pump harnesses the force of the pumping mechanism to expand or contract liquid within an enclosed space. Utilizing a power source such as an electric motor or an internal-combustion engine, rotational motion can be harnessed for driving the piston assembly. With less advanced models, the rotational motion typically needed for operations may be given through a hand crank, wind, or flowing water.

When discussing the different types of piston pumps that are commonly found across different applications, the two primary types are the lift pump and force pump. With the lift pump, water may be drawn into the lower section of the cylinder as the piston commences its upstroke. Upon starting the downstroke, water is then forced through internal valves to reach the upper section of the cylinder. From there, the subsequent upstroke causes the water to be discharged from the cylinder with the use of a spout component. As the lift pump utilizes air pressure against a vacuum for its operations, the height of water may be limited.

Force pumps are a type that draw water into the cylinder through a valve during the uptake stroke. On the downstroke, the water may be discharged through an outlet valve to reach an outlet pipe. The piston force pump is capable of forcing water upwards with considerable height, often used to drain deeper mines during its early days.

Beyond such types, a number of other piston pump components may be procured such as cutter radial pump, bearing fuel pump, bearing pump, axial piston pump, and plunger pump types. When choosing a pump for a particular application, it is useful to consider the rate of flow, volume stroke, outlet diameter, pressure, power rating, operating temperature, head shape, horsepower, and other factors that can make the difference of whether or not a particular component is fit for a given application. Additionally, a number of materials may be used for the construction of piston pumps, common ones including cast iron, plastic, stainless steel alloys, and more. When choosing between materials, one should consider whether or not there is need for chemical resistance, rust prevention, pressure requirements, or other characteristics.

Piston pumps can be advantageous for a number of applications, operating over a range of pressures without affecting flow rate. Whether you are in need of piston engine pump parts, piston pump control components, and other various items, look no further than Click Aerospace. Click Aerospace is a top supplier of aircraft parts, offering customers access to new, used, and obsolete items that have been sourced from leading global manufacturers that we trust. If you would like to begin the purchasing process or would simply like to speak with one of our representatives to learn more about our services, give us a call or email today and we would be more than happy to assist you as needed.


February 17, 2023

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