With almost ten thousand flights happening on an average day, aircraft manufacturers have gone to great lengths to optimize their products for fuel efficiency. Fuel nozzles are essential components for distributing just the right amount of fuel to be ignited in the combustion chamber. As such, the overall fuel efficiency and power of an aircraft are dependent primarily on the perfect distribution of fuel. To suit a number of different applications, several varieties exist which include varying nozzle shapes among other characteristics. In this article, we will be discussing the various options of fuel nozzle design and how they typically function in tandem with a burner so you can best choose the correct nozzle for your combustion engine.
What Is a Fuel Nozzle?
Fuel nozzles are the devices used in combustion chambers, or burners, to spray a specific viscosity and amount of fuel to be ignited. Though several types exist, they typically include a pressure chamber and needle valve, which are encased in the heat-resistant injector body. When fuel enters the injector nozzle, it is pumped into a pressurized chamber and then condensed and released through a very tight passage. The shape of the hole at the end of the nozzle allows for the fuel to exit in a cone shape which atomizes the fuel for easier combustion.
Different Types Available
Fuel nozzles can be categorized by the design of their nozzle and how it affects the distribution of fuel. In a solid style nozzle, the fuel is distributed evenly throughout the entire spray pattern. Conversely, in a hollow style nozzle, the fuel is distributed more to the outer ring. Multipurpose nozzles also exist that can accomplish both patterns of fuel release. The main types of fuel injectors used on aircraft are simplex and duplex designs. Simplex nozzles were the original design that had only a nozzle tip, an insert, and a strainer. These were eventually replaced in the most part by duplex nozzles which gave better fuel atomization at starting and idling speeds. Duplex models differ because they use a strainer that separates the fuel into two sections that are controlled by internal pressure. In these systems, there are two channels for fuel to exit into the combustion chamber, but the second channel isn’t always open. Rather, the fluid pressure must reach a certain level to open the second channel and disperse twice the amount of fuel. This capability is useful for preserving fuel at times when less is needed, such as when the engine is idle.
Selecting a Fuel Nozzle
The most important step for selecting the proper fuel nozzle for your burner is to follow the specifications in the appliance manual for your combustion chamber. It may also be helpful to put a potential nozzle in the system and run combustion tests. Additionally, the circulation or recirculation patterns within the combustion chamber and the design of the burner parts will have a great influence on the appropriate nozzle type. Regardless of whether you are constructing the whole system together or retrofitting a new burner to an old appliance, you should also follow the appliance manufacturer’s recommendations. Lastly, it is important to set up the combustion assembly with properly maintained test instruments that measure smoke, CO2, O2, drafts, and pump pressure.
There are several varieties of fuel nozzles available, and as such, it is crucial to pick the correct device for your burner. Though there are a few factors to consider, the most important step is to check the recommendations in the appliance manual for your combustion system. If you are an aircraft owner or operator on the search for high quality aviation parts, like adapter oil burners, actuator nozzles, nozzle bearings, and more, you can rely on Click Aerospace for all the components you require for your operations. Working with a widespread network of international partners, we are well-equipped to handle all your operational requirements, even for AOG situations. Start the purchasing process with Click Aerospace today to receive a rapid solution for your parts requirements with time and cost savings.
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